Tuesday, November 8, 2016

The Multi-purpose Patrol Vessel, the Philippine Navy's Newest Horizon 2 Project

With the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Modernization Program already moving to the second five-year phase, dubbed as the Horizon 2 Phase covering years 2018-2022, the planners of the AFP, including those in the Philippine Navy (PN), are now preparing their next projects for implementation under this phase. While their shopping list has been changing lately due to the changing policies of the country under the administration of Pres. Rodrigo Duterte, MaxDefense believes that the AFP has made a priority list that will be immediately implemented, out of the numerous projects that were submitted.

While there are several naval projects indicated in the memorandum submitted by the AFP to the AFP Chief of Staff early last month, a project stood out for being something new and was not among those listed in previous shopping lists submitted by the PN since the initial Desired Force Mix presented in 2012.

That project is called "Multi-Purpose Patrol Vessels" of the Philippine Navy. We would refer to this class of ship as "MPPV" on the duration of the blog entry.

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Note and disclaimer: all these, especially the information on the ships themselves, are based only on informal initial information provided to MaxDefense by its different sources from the PN and DND, and other special sources. As of this writing, MaxDefense was informed that the Philippine Navy has yet to form a Defense Acquisition System Assessment Team (DASAT) and a Project Management Team (PMT) for this specific project, and no Request for Information (RFI) has been sent out to shipbuilders, system providers, and integrators as of yet. This blog entry will be overwritten later on as more formal and concrete information becomes available. 

The information on the background section, and on the "parallels within the ASEAN region" section are confirmed, and can be vouched by MaxDefense.
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Singapore's Independence-class littoral mission vessel are the best that MaxDefense can hope on what the PN should use as a template for its Multipurpose Patrol Vessels. It has all the features the PN could want, but the price could be an issue.
Photo from Singapore Ministry of Defence (MINDEF).


Background:
Previously MaxDefense mentioned that there were several versions of the Philippine Navy's shopping list that were released within the AFP, although it was said that only two versions were approved as official. The first was released in 2012, which was called the Desired Force Mix, while the second was the Philippine Navy Capability Upgrade Program released on April 2016. Between 2012 and 2016, there were also draft wish lists made, that were a little different from the two approved lists but were said to be overridden by the April 2016 version.


The 2012 Desired Force Mix of the Philippine Navy, which was meant to be acquired during the 3 Horizon phases of the AFP Modernization Program.
Photo taken from Timawa.net forum.


The 2012 Desired Force Mix included a requirement for 18 Offshore Patrol Vessels and 40 Patrol Gunboats in its wish list. These were optimized by the PN to be the bulk of the patrol fleet that are much useful during peacetime and law-enforcement operations while surface combatants like corvettes and frigates are meant more for low to high intensity naval conflicts. 

Later versions of the Philippine Navy's wish list did not include both the Offshore Patrol Vessel and Patrol Gunboat requirements, although changes were made on the quantity of other assets included in the DFM list, including the inclusion of new assets like LHA-type vessel, Landing Craft Air Cushioned, and other assets.


This wish list was released by the Philippine Navy is 2015, although the same content was already on documents provided to MaxDefense via its sources as early as 2014. This does not show any requirement for OPV or Patrol Gunboats, yet it included new items like an LHA-type SSV, and other assets.
Photo taken from the Philippine Navy's website.


The latest version of the wish list, released on April 2016, further made changes to the previously released lists. It still did not include Offshore Patrol Vessels and Patrol Gunboats in it, but a new type of ship called the Littoral Patrol Interdiction Craft (LPIC) was included, which was described by MaxDefense sources from the Philippine Navy to be a ship of similar size and capability as the Cyclone-class inshore patrol vessel currently operated by the PN (BRP Gen. Mariano Alvarez (PS-38)) acquired from the US during the term of Pres. Gloria Arroyo.


The latest pre-Duterte administration wish list of the Philippine Navy, shown here in part due to the photo's emphasis of assets for the Philippine Fleet and not for the entire Philippine Navy. The Littoral Combat Force portion shows the LPIC which appears to be similar to the Cyclone-class patrol vessel already operated by the PN.
Photo taken from Cods Salacup M's Facebook page.


Despite being a new wish list, the April 2016 list appears to have been overridden by another wish list, as shown by the Philippine Navy during ADAS 2016 held last September 2016. It appears that during this time, the Philippine Navy was already reformulating their wish list based on the policies set-upon by Pres. Duterte when he came into power a few months back. There is a sudden requirement for an Ocean Patrol Vessel, positioned very much on the centre of the info-graphic poster in the Philippine Navy's stand. 

But as of October 2016, the AFP submitted a tentative wish list to the CSAFP, which is more of a general wish list without too much specifics except for those listed, and it included this Multi-Purpose Patrol Vessel project, together with other AFP projects that are of immediate requirement and intended for implementation as early as possible.


This is the last infographic displayed by the Philippine Navy during ADAS 2016. While almost half of the projects are already shown on previous infographics prior to this one, many are actually new are were not in previous wish lists. The Ocean Patrol Vessel is actually one that is in the middle, and could be a precursor to the need of the PN for patrol vessels that are less capable than corvettes, but are larger than the fast interdiction crafts that they intend to acquire.
Photo shared by Steel Bamboo, a MaxDefense community member.



The Multi-Purpose Patrol Vessel's Intended Purpose:

It was among the projects presented by the AFP that is, officially, meant to support the government's policy to build a strong interdiction capability to counter the proliferation of narcotics from abroad, and ingress/egress of foreign vessels involved in transnational crime along the country's coastal waters. This is very much in line with Pres. Duterte's policies on war against drugs and terrorism.

Despite these, it is expected that the Philippine Navy will also use them for other purposes, including as a mobile Coast Watch platform that will be connected to the Coast Watch Philippines maritime surveillance system, patrol the country's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), as a search and rescue or HADR platform in support of the national government, and be used as additional combat asset should the Philippine Navy finds the need to do so, especially in times of emergencies and war. Even if the current administration does not intend to push these ships for these missions, remember that the ships would probably be in service for the next 30 years, way way after Pres. Duterte's term.

Thus, in simple terms, the ship would be similar to a typical patrol vessel, and the classification would be further identified by its size. A larger ship would enable it to reach greater distances and deeper waters with higher sea states similar to an Offshore Patrol Vessel, nonetheless it can be a typical inshore patrol vessel.

Aside from these duties, the memorandum from the AFP specifically mentioned that these ships are meant to replace the remaining World War II-era warships in the Philippine Navy's inventory, specifically the sole destroyer escort (DE) BRP Rajah Humabon (FF-11), the two Rizal-class minesweeper frigates (MSF), and the six remaining Miguel Malvar-class patrol craft escorts (PCE).

Based on this information alone, the future MPPVs are meant to replace ships that are capable of offshore operations, with limited modern combat capability, and has enough endurance as OPVs like these old ships. Despite their classifications, the PN uses these WW2-era ships in a similar fashion as an OPV.


Expected Quantity and Specifications:

Based on the information provided by MaxDefense sources, the Multi-Purpose Patrol Vessel was meant to replace the seven Littoral Patrol Interdiction Craft (LPIC) originally proposed on the April 2016 Capability Upgrade Program wish list of the Philippine Navy. 

Also base on the October 2016 AFP memorandum, the PN plans to have somewhere between 6 to 9 ships of this type, and based on earlier count of WW2-era ships, it appears to be a 1:1 replacement.

The ships are expected to be on the same category of the Jacinto-class patrol vessels in service with the PN, but will definitely have better performance, capability, and will meet actual PN requirements rather than adjusting accordingly to the ship.


Dimensions and Features:
The same memorandum mentioned that these ships will have a length in excess of 50 meters, which appears to be on the same range as the Cyclone-class.

Despite the information on the memorandum, MaxDefense sources from the Philippine Navy confirmed that the ships are actually expected to be longer than 50 meters, and will probably range somewhere nearer to 70 to 80 meters in length. No beam (width) and displacement was provided, although a ship of around 70 to 80 meters in length nowadays would translate to at least 900 tons, depending on the features it possess (further discussed on the next paragraphs).

In terms of capability, the ships are to be designed with fast Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB) operations in mind. The PN eyes the ships to be capable of carrying a minimum of 2 RHIBs, although preference will be for the ships to be able to carry and operate 4 RHIBs. This capability entails the need for large spaces, and if fast RHIB launching and recovery is a primary requirement, it is expected that the ships will have a stern-mounted ramps, while option to carry additional RHIB means that these would be carried on davits on the port and starboard sides of the superstructure. A ship with these requirements definitely go beyond 50, or even 60 meters in length.


The French Navy's L'Adroit-class OPV, based on the DCNS Gowind family, has a stern ramp for two 9-meter RHIBs, and could carry two more RHIBs on the superstructure sides.
Photo taken from Marine Nationale (French Navy)

Aside from RHIBs, the Philippine Navy eyes the MPPVs to have a helicopter deck capable of operating a helicopter of unspecified weight. It is highly possible that the requirement may only be for light helicopters like the Leonardo AW-109E Power already in service with the PN, and for ship-launched UAVs. 

But it is also possible that if the platform will be used in HADR operations and support of combat warships in the future, it is also possible that the helicopter deck will be specified for medium helicopters of  (10 to 12 tons in full operating weight), similar to the ones specified on the Tarlac-class Landing Platform Dock, and the Philippine Navy's future frigate. 

The ship does not require a hangar, which is standard in most OPV designs. The adding of a helicopter deck further increases the chances that the PN MPPV will be at least 80 meters long, similar to the length of the French L'Adroit-class or the Singaporean Independence-class, although an elevated helicopter deck with a stern RHIB ramp below could reduce the length of the ship to around 60-70 meters only.


An elevated helicopter deck with a stern RHIB ramp below, similar to the one on Damen's OPV-1400 design (above) with RHIBs launched from davits on the sides, is also another good example on how to integrate the two requirements (helicopter and RHIB operations) without extending the ship's length too much. 


Performance:

The ships are expected to be diesel powered, probably powered by four diesel engines with controllable pitch propellers. The preference of the PN of using German-brand diesel engines, like those specified in the Tarlac-class and the PN's future frigate could also be a template for the MPPVs.

 Based on information provided to MaxDefense, the ships are also expected to have a maximum speed of somewhere between 20 to 23 knots, which is the standard speeds of an OPV, less than that of combat vessels like frigates or corvettes, but definitely faster than the World War 2 ships it will be replacing.

It is also expected that the ships will have a range of somewhere above 3,000 nautical miles, endurance of at least 2 weeks, and will be capable of operations of up to Sea State 5, while also survivable at least up to Sea State 7. 


Sensors:
No mention was made if the ships will be installed with a combat management system (CMS), but it is highly possible that it won't be installed to reduce costs, or a more compact system will be opted as compared to those to be installed on the PN's future frigate.

No mention was also made on what type of radar to be used. It is highly expected to have a navigation and secondary surface search X and S-band radar, as equipped in almost all PN major surface asset. It is highly possible that only a 2D surface and air search radar will be used to reduce cost, instead of a 3D system. It is also expected that the ships will be interconnected to the Coast Watch Philippines system, and will act as a mobile coast watch radar.


A 2D surface/air search & surveillance radar, like Thales' Variant series (above) would probably be used instead of a 3D system which is more expensive and illogical considering the capabilities and design intentions of the MPPVs.
Photo taken from Thales' Twitter account.

It is also expected that the main gun would either have its own fire control radar, or if the gun is less than 76mm in caliber, an Electro-Optical Tracking System (EOTS) similar to those being installed on the Jacinto-class patrol vessels (JCPV) of the PN under the Phase 3A and 3B of its modernization program.

MaxDefense also believes an Electronic Support Measures (ESM) would also be installed on the MPPVs, basing on the availability of such systems with the JCPVs (yes, those small ships at least have ESM). For commonality with the PN's future frigate, a Thales system like the Vigile LW could also be used.



Weaponry:
MaxDefense was informed that the PN intends the MPPVs to be lightly armed, although they would have spaces provided should the PN decide to uparm them later on. Initial information gathered by MaxDefense points that the ships would only be armed with guns. Its primary gun would be a 30 to 40mm remotely-controlled stabilized gun, with secondary 12.7 to 25mm remotely-controlled stabilized guns and manually operated 12.7mm machine guns. The secondary gun caliber size would depend on what the main gun would be, the smaller the main gun, the smaller the secondary gun too. 

Take note that this layout seems to be not final yet, as another source mentioned that the PN is also looking at installing at least an Oto Melara 76mm gun as its primary weapon, which was the original gun of choice on previous OPV plans of the PN. It is expected that the PN would stick to existing calibres already in service (20mm, 25mm, 30mm, 40mm, and 76mm) and won't be considering a new caliber (57mm) due to logistics issues.


The recent decision of the PN to use a 30mm secondary gun for the PN's future frigate suggests that the PN is trying to move up from the previously used 25mm caliber, and may continue to do so for future warship requirements. Initial information gathered by MaxDefense suggests that the PN may use a 30mm or 40mm caliber for the MPPV's main gun requirement. Future uparming with short-range surface to surface missiles like the Rafael Spike-ER or Spike-NLOS is highly possible too.



If the PN decides to stick with the 40mm caliber as the ship's main gun, MaxDefense suggests the use of the newly developed RAPIDSeaGuardian gun from Thales, which, although uses a different ammunition (cased telescopic ammunition) that is different from standard 40mm ammunition used by the PN, can engage conventional naval and slow moving aerial threats, as well as assuming the role of a Close-In Weapons System (CIWS) capable of defending the ship from sea-skimming anti-ship missiles and fast moving attack aircraft. Only issue with this gun is the cost, which is expected to be far more expensive than a standard 30mm or 40mm RCWS mounted gun.


MaxDefense recommends the use of the Thales RAPIDSeaGuardian naval gun should the PN stick to the use of calibers less than 76mm. This gun can also be a CIWS to defend the ship from sea-skimming anti-ship missiles aside from traditional surface and slow-flying aerial threats.
Photo taken from Navy Recognition website.


The PN's MPPV are said to be designed to accommodate up-arming plans, but would probably be limited to short range anti-ship and short range defensive anti-aircraft capability if the option is given a go.

The ships could be armed later on with Rafael's Spike-ER or Spike-NLOS, or Thales' LMM short range missiles. Spike-ER and Spike-NLOS are already being put into service with the PN with its MPAC Mk.3 and Leonardo AW-159 Wildcat helicopter, respectively, while upcoming fast interdiction crafts (as discussed briefly in a MaxDefense Facebook wall post in the past). Meanwhile Thales has been offering their LMM missile with the PN's Naval Air Group and Littoral Combat Force for use on the Leonardo AW-109 and littoral surface assets.

Air defense can be provided by Simbad-RC with MBDA's Mistral very short range air defense missiles similar to those to be installed on the PN's future frigates, to provide a limited air defense capability. 

Aside from these, there were no confirmation if the ships will be capable of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) with a sonar system and anti-submarine torpedoes, which appears to be a feature available with the future corvettes and frigates only.


The Simbad-RC armed with Mistral very short range air defense system (VSHORAD) could be a good addition to the ship if there are extra funds available to provide the ships with a limited air defense capability. Manually operated Simbads can also be better than nothing at all.
Photo taken from MBDA website.





Possible Choices:
MaxDefense sources pointed out that the Philippine Navy is currently looking at designs from Sweden's Saab Kockums with their FLEXPatrol family, Damen of The Netherlands with the different OPV designs (MaxDefense believes the OPV-1400 and OPV-1800), BAE Systems Maritime-Naval Ships with their River-class Batch 2, and KERSHIP of France (joint venture between French shipbuilders DCNS and Piriou) possibly with their OPV-75 design, although MaxDefense believes French offers could be expensive. 

So far, no mention was made to MaxDefense if the PN is looking at designs from Asian countries like Singapore or South Korea.

Looking at the possible choices above, it looks like all proponents are new to the Philippine Navy, as none of them were even present when the PN decided to tender its requirement for a future frigate. Damen and DCNS were said to have passed-off the frigate due to lack of confidence that it will push through, although a very slim margin of profit was also another reason due to the very small budget provided for the frigates. Hopefully this time they would be pushing their wares seriously to the PN.


BAE System Maritime's River-class Batch 2 OPV design is also being eyed by the PN, considering that it has features that the PN are looking for with their MPPV. This is also considering that the PN is eyeing the acquisition of the Royal Navy's River-class Batch 1 OPVs once they are retired from service.
The Royal New Zealand Navy's Protector-class OPV, built by Tenix in Australia, is another template that could be used to visualize what the PN's MPPV may look like. Dimensions, performance, sensors, weapons, RHIB carrying capability and helicopter deck are all there.
Photo taken from Pinterest.





Parallels within the ASEAN Region:

Several ASEAN navies are also embarking on similar littoral patrol vessel programs and it would be interesting to mention and compare them with the PN's Multi-Purpose Patrol Vessel based on the information gathered.

Thailand:
The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) was the first to launch such type of vessel, considered as an Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV) which is used to patrol Thailand's vast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) as well as its littorals in support of smaller surface assets of the RTN.

The RTN's Krabi-class, currently composed of a single active ship and another being constructed in Thailand, have opted to use a modified River-class OPV designed by British shipbuilder BAE Systems Maritime. The ship is 90 meters long, displaces around 2,000 tons, has a high range of 5,500 nautical miles, a maximum speed of 25 knots, and has a helideck for up to a medium-class helicopter. The ship is armed with guns only consisting of an Oto Melara 76mm main gun, two MSI Defence DS30 RCWS-mounted guns, and two manually-operated heavy machine guns. The ship's sensor include a Thales VARIANT lightweight 2D short-medium range surveillance radar which is sufficient enough given the ship's weapons capability.

Compared to the Philippine Navy requirement, this is actually the closest one, but the Thai OPV may be larger, and is more capable than what the PN is looking for.


The HTMS Krabi (OPV-551) while in Australia. A second ship is being constructed and will be installed with almost the same sensors systems in addition to a Thales TACTICOS combat management system.
Photo taken from Shipspotting.com. Credits to the owner.


Brunei:
The small Royal Brunei Navy (RBN) prides itself of having four capable offshore patrol vessels with offensive capabilities in its fleet, called the Darussalam-class, which were made by German shipbuilder Lurssen Wherft. The ships 80 metes long, displaces in excess of 1,600 tons, has a maximum range of 7,500 nautical miles, an endurance of 21 days, and have a maximum speed of 22 knots. It is equipped with a Terma Scanter 4100 2D surveillance radars, and are armed with a Bofors 57mm gun, two Oerlikon 20mm guns, a two twin MBDA Exocet MM40 Block 3 anti-ship missile system. 

These ships, being the most capable in the Brunei fleet, were standard OPVs armed with anti-ship missiles to provide the punch they need due to the absence of other ships that could provide such capability. Without the missiles, they are actually close to the PN requirement.





Malaysia:
The Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) recently signed for four Littoral Missions Ships (LMS) with China, which will be a new class of patrol vessels that are included in their "15 to 5" Transformation Programme which calls for the reduction of the RMN's fleet from 15 different ship classes, to only 5 by . Two of the ships will be built in China, while 2 will be built in Malaysia. 18 LMS are actually eyed by the RMN, thus it is highly possible that the RMN will be constructing more Chinese-designed LMS in local shipyards as funding becomes available. The LMS is slated to initially replace the Laksamana-class corvettes, and other smaller patrol boats in the near future. The CGI provided by the RMN shows that it looks similar to the Bangladeshi Durjoy-class patrol vessels sold by China recently.

The RMN's LMS has so far no been described much but it was said that the requirement is for it to be armed with guns only, but will be wired for missile systems if deemed necessary.


A CGI of the Malaysian LMS68 ship as provided by the Royal Malaysian Navy.
Photo taken from MalaysaDefense blog page.


Singapore:
The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) has launched their Independence-class Littoral Mission Vessel (LMV), a class of 8 new ships that are meant to replace their Fearless-class patrol vessels. The LMVs were designed jointly by Saab Kockums and ST Marine, together with the Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA), are is slotted below the Victory-class missile corvettes in terms of size and capability. 

Based on information provided by the RSN, the Independence-class will be 80 meters long, displace around 1,250 tons, has a maximum speed in excess of 27 knots, a maximum range of 3,500 nautical miles, and endurance of around 14 days. It is armed with a 76mm Oto Melara gun, probably reused from the Fearless-class, an air defense capability with 12 MBDA VL-Mica anti-aircraft missiles launched from a VLS, It will also be armed with two Oto Melara Hitrole 12.7mm RCWS-mounted guns, a Rafael Typhoon 25mm RCWS-mounted gun, a helicopter landing pad for medium helicopters (probably SH-60 Seahawk category), a RHB fast launch and recovery system, and a Thales NS-106 3D surveillance radar similar to ones to be installed on the Philippine Navy's future frigate.

In a nutshell, the RSN's Independence-class is the maximum level in this category, with high-level weapons and sensors system despite just being a patrol vessel. The Philippine Navy requirement for MPPV is definitely slotted below this class, and would be less capable, but far cheaper than the Singaporean model. Based on the specs of the ship, "littoral" appears to just be a term but in fact the ship can be used to patrol on deep water far away from the Singapore mainland.


The Independence-class Littoral Mission Vessel (LMV) of the Republic of Singapore Navy.
Photo from RSN.



Timeline:

Being a Horizon 2 project, it is expected that the PN might only come up with a program to start this project by 2017 or even 2018, that is a big IF the PN does not change its shopping wish list again. It normally takes a year or two for a project to be conceptualized, and probably a year or two to tender. If DASAT and PMT are not yet made, then it means the concept is probably only in its early stages, so are the information we have above.

But if the Duterte administration allows the PN to forego the tender system as stipulated by RA 9184, then an award of the project can be made earlier than usual, probably as early as late 2018. If that happens, the first ship of the class could be in service within 2020, almost the same time as the new frigates ordered from HHI.

As far as MaxDefense sources confirmed, this project is said to be among the urgent once since the ships it would replace are nearing 80 years old (gasp!) by then, and they don't have the intention to put them to work any longer.

Until then, MaxDefense will be updating its readers of this project as more information becomes available. Hopefully as early as first half of 2017 we could be getting more confirmed information, considering that many of the PN staff involved in planning this project was in EuroNaval 2016 a few weeks ago, already talking to some of the eyed shipbuilders not just for this project, but also for the expected corvette project. And as far as I was told, many of them were also in Indonesia to attend the massive IndoDefense 2016 defense exhibition to do information gathering.





Monday, October 24, 2016

Finally, the Contract Signing for 2 New Light Frigates between Philippine Navy and Hyundai Heavy Industries

Since MaxDefense announced the release of the Notice of Award for the Philippine Navy's Frigate Acquisition Project to Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) last September 1, 2016 signifying the win as the chosen shipbuilder for the project, it has been a hanging question as to when the contract will be signed between the two parties. The project involves the acquisition of two brand-new light frigates, which is to become the most modern surface combatant of the Philippine Navy in the next few years.

It was originally thought that the contract will be signed before the end of the month, with no less than the Department of National Defense (DND) through its spokesman Arsenio Andolong mentioning about the target schedule. We all know this did not push through.


This photo was released by HHI as the perspective design of the PN's new frigate. As expected it will have design cues taken from the FFX-3 which was also designed by HHI.
Photo taken from HHI's website.



For the Big News of the Day:

According to MaxDefense sources, the Frigate Acquisition Project's contract signing ceremonies will be held today, October 24, 2016, at 2:00pm (Philippines time) at the Headquarters, Philippine Navy in Roxas Boulevard, Manila. The program will be attended by DND, AFP, and PN high command officials, HHI executives, and the South Korean ambassador to the Philippines.

It turns out that many even in the Philippine Navy itself is not aware of this event for reasons unknown to us.

The contract signing is an important part of the procurement process as it puts into paper whatever discussions were made in the past, and signifies the order of the Philippine Navy to have HHI build the frigates.

According to HHI, the ships will be based on the company's HDF-3000 frigate design, but with some changes as specified by the Philippine Navy. It won't necessarily be a twin of the Incheon-class frigate of the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN).

Based on the schedules submitted by the Philippine Navy for compliance by the winning shipbuilder, the first ship will be delivered to the Philippine Navy by late 2019, and the second ship by late 2020.

HHI released a computer-generated design of the frigate, and as MaxDefense predicted in the past, it takes a strong cue from the ROKN's FFX-3 frigate which was also designed by HHI.


Weapons and Sensors:

Based on the Bill of Quantities submitted by HHI to the PN during the Submission and Opening of Bid Envelopes (SOBE) during the 2nd stage bidding stage several months ago, the ship will be armed with a 76mm Oto Melara Super Rapid main gun, two twin launchers for SSM-700K C-Star anti-ship cruise missiles, two twin Simbad-RC launchers for Mistral short range surface-to-air missiles, two triple trainable torpedo tubes firing Blue Shark lightweight anti-submarine torpedoes, a single MSI Defense Seahawk RCWS with a 30mm gun, at least 4 manually operated M2HB 50-caliber machine guns.

Further discussion about this can be found on our previous blog entry:

"The Philippine Navy's Future Frigate from Hyundai: Discussing the Ship's Design and Some of its Expected Subsystems" - dated September 3, 2016.


Twin Simbad-RC for Mistral missiles are included in the new frigates.
Photo taken from MBDA website.



Frigate's CMS and Sensors:


Based on the same BOQ from the SOBE as mentioned earlier, the Philippine Navy's frigate will be installed with a variety of sensors, described as the following:


(note: this applies if PN's Project Management Team did not do changes, or did not allow changes as requested by HHI)

Combat Management System (CMS) - will be TACTICOS Combat Management System from Thales. Among the most proven CMS in the market today, the PN will be benefiting from the TACTICOS' performance for the frigates, and is designed to be able to integrate the weapons systems mentioned above, as well as all the other sensors mentioned below.

A previous blog entry comparing it to the Hanwha Systems Naval Shield CMS can be accessed below:

"Naval Combat Management System - MaxDefense's Choice for the Philippines' New Frigate & Existing Warships" - dated September 27, 2016.


3D Surveillance Radar - the ship will be installed with the NS-100 series dual-axis multi-beam AESA radar also from Thales. The specific model will be the NS-106, which is a very new product considering Singapore was the launch customer for the Littoral Missions Vessel that are just launched lately. Far better than the 2D type which was indicated in the initial technical specifications during the frigate acquisition program's 1st stage.


The new frigates will be having the NS-106 AESA radars, a far improvement over the 2D system specified in the initial phases of the project.


Hull Mounted Sonar - Thales' Bluewatcher hull-mounted sonar will be used for the frigates. Although not the best in Thales' line-up, it would be a good start and is mostly used in small surface combatants. MaxDefense prefers the use of the more capable but more expensive and larger Thales KingKlip sonar. The Bluewatcher would be complemented by a towed-array sonar system in the future should the PN continue with its original plan.

Fire Control Radar (FCR) - the ships will have a Thales STIR 1.2 EO Mk. 2 fire control radar to guide the 76mm Oto Melara main gun. It has electronic counter counter measures (ECCM) capability and has a full EO suite with it.


The STIR 1.2 EO Mk.2 from Thales, the Fire Control Radar chosen for the frigates.
Photo taken from Thales' website.



Electro-Optical Tracking System (EOTS) - the SAQ-540K from LIGNex1 will guide the Seahawk 30mm gun. This is so far the only Korean-made sensor system offered by HHI based on the BOQ.

Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESM) - so far this is the only softkill EW component on the ship, it will have the Vigile LW from Thales. A lightweight system, it is normally designed for small warships although frigates are also OK with it. But for better capability, MaxDefense believes that the PN should upgrade its ESM system to the Vigile 100 Mk.2 which is similar to those to be used in Malaysia's upcoming Gowind littoral combat ship/frigate.

Missile and Torpedo Decoy Launching and Countermeasures SystemWallop's Super Barricade countermeasures system will be installed on the ships. Two systems will be installed in each ship to defend from both port and starboard sides. The Super Barricade can launch decoys for incoming anti-ship missiles and anti-ship torpedoes.


The Super Barricade countermeasures system will be a part of the frigate's defensive suit.
Photo taken from Naval Technology website.



Tactical Data Link - Thales Link Y Mk.2 was chosen to be the ship's tactical data link, comparable to the NATO Link 11 but with enhanced features. The specs also mentioned that the ships should have space to allow a possible installation of air warfare data Link 16 and maritime data Link 22 in the future.


Design Concerns:


The computer generated image (CGI) provided by Hyundai clearly shows the stealthy features incorporated by HHI to the frigate design, with cues coming in from the FFX-3 frigate of the ROKN which HHI also designed. It looks far more modern than the original HDF-3000 design used on the ROKN's Incheon-class frigate, with cleaner superstructure and less clutter, and a reduced smokestack due to the absence of a gas turbine engine found on the Incheon-class.

Based on the dimensions provided by HHI, it appears that the ship will have a displacement of around 2,600 tons, length of 107 meters, and beam of 12 meters, and a top speed of 25 knots, with a range of 4,500 nautical miles @ 15 knots speed. As specified in the past, the ship will be powered in a CODAD configuration.


This appears to be within the specifications provided by the Philippine Navy in the past, but is very close to it and was not given significant improvements. MaxDefense's concern is the marginal room for improvement, including the lack of space for more anti-ship missiles or land-attack rockets, In comparison, the Incheon-class actually can accommodate a mix of up to 16 anti-ship and land-attack missiles using four quadruple missile launchers, while the PN design appears to have space for only up to two quadruple launchers.

Another design comment is the uncovered deck near the smokestack which exposes the missile launchers, RHIBs and torpedo launchers, and also reduces stealth characteristics on that portion of the ship. This could be added in the final design, while MaxDefense prefers the torpedo launcher to be placed at a lower deck level, hidden in an openable deck enclosure.


Majority of MaxDefense's comment on the design can be found at this portion of the ship. MaxDefense believes that more space should be provided here, while providing a deck enclosure to cover the launchers, RHIBs, and torpedo launchers. Also, the 30mm Seahawk secondary gun would be more suitably installed here than on top of the hangar.
Photo snapped from HHI's photo.


The photo also suggests that the Simbad to be used by the PN will be the Remote Controlled (RC) version. The missile launcher are found on the roof deck of the bridge, but MaxDefense's concerns is on the reloading of the missiles. While it is expected to be done manually, carrying it over to the roof through an access from the bridge is an awkward way of doing it. The photo also clearly shows the NS-100 series 3D surveillance radar.


The twin Simbad-RC launchers, the X and S-band navigation radar antennas, the STIR 1.2 EO Mk.2 fire control radar, and the NS-106 3D surveillance radar are clearly shown on this part of the ship.
Photo snapped from HHI's original CGI.



On the rear part of the ship, the single MSI Defense Seahawk 30mm secondary gun appears to be position too high, considering that its purpose is to defend the ship from incoming small surface targets like fast boats and minor targets. Its very high position may not allow its gun to hit targets closer to the ship, and that position is better suited for the future anti-ship missile CIWS like Phalanx, Goalkeeper, or RAM / SeaRAM.

MaxDefense believes that it would best for the ship to have two Seahawk 30mm guns, one each on port and starboard side, probably positioned lower at the midships, near the current position of the triple trainable torpedo tubes. But this requires the open midship section to be longer, affecting the ship's overall length.


The position of the secondary gun atop the hangar seems too high and too centered, that it may have difficulty hitting targets closer to the ship due to the guns limited negative elevation,
Photo snapped from HHI's original CGI.



And with HHI using the MSI Defense Seahawk gun mount, MaxDefense suggests to the Philippine Navy to consider arming the guns with the Thales LMM missile, which the Seahawk SIGMA has the ability to install on the gun mount itself. This increases the capability of the ship to defend from numerous "swarm" attack of small boats at longer distances with higher accuracy than the gun itself. Considering that Thales is already onboard with the sensors and CMS, acquiring the LMM might not be difficult to make.


The MSI Defense Seahawk SIGMA can mount LMM missile launchers on its side, which allows the gun to engage swarm attacks at longer distances than the gun itself. MaxDefense suggests the use of this system.
Photo taken from MSI Defense website.



While MaxDefense prefers a larger design, probably the same dimensions as the Incheon-class (114 meters length, 14 meters beam), this could take toll on the ship's performance, considering that the maximum speed is already at the low side except if they increase the power of the diesel engines which are also larger in dimensions and heavier in weight.


Design cues for the superstructure were obviously taken from the FFX-3 frigate (above) designed by Hyundai, although the FFX-3 is far larger, and has more accommodations for improvement in the future, which is MaxDefense's primary concern for the PN frigate.
Credits to the unknown owner of the photo.




While the CGI is probably closer to the final design, MaxDefense will be waiting for the final design to be completed, as it is expected that the PN would provide some more inputs, and probably improve on the design and features of the ship. Although this could translate to cost increases, that could be done as a variation order for the project. 

Also, remember that the PN still has a change of more than Php 200 million pesos, the difference between the ABC worth Php 16 billion, and HHI's offer worth Php 15.744 billion. MaxDefense expects the PN to use that amount to further improve the ship, like for example, adding a second secondary gun for both ships, or increasing the ship's size.




Positive Effects of Contract Signing:

Aside from confirming the order for the frigate, the contract signing is actually a bigger event that shows the seriousness of the Philippine Navy in its modernization drive.

The contract amount might be small compared to the frigate project of its peers in the region, but the point that finally the Philippines was able to push for a new build warship will definitely entice the global defense industry to look at the Philippines again. The frigates are just one of many expected new-build naval projects that the Philippine Navy will be undertaking in the years ahead.

Among those expected to take notice are European shipbuilders, who, except for Spain's Navantia and ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) of Germany, are mostly absent during the Frigate acquisition project. This includes Damen of Netherlands, DCNS of France, Leonardo of Italy, and BAE Systems of the UK. According to MaxDefense sources, these shipbuilders skipped the frigate bidding due to their disbelief that the project will push through, and if it does, the profit will be too low.

Now that Pres. Duterte has announced his rejection to the tender system in acquiring defense materiel for the Armed Forces of the Philippines, it won't be a fight of who's the cheapest anymore, but on who can provide a good balance of capability and pricing.


The Philippine Navy has several other naval projects coming up in the next few years, and the signing of the frigate contract shows to the world that the PN is ready to acquire modern new systems from the global market.
Photo taken from TKMS' website.


What's Next?

After the contract signing, we will be awaiting for the Opening of Letter of Credit, and the submission of the Notice to Proceed by the DND/PN to HHI. These are also important for HHI, as the Letter of Credit gives them assurance that funding will be provided upon meeting delivery or schedule conditions, while the Notice to Proceed is the document stating that HHI can formally proceed with the project, and will be the basis of the construction and delivery schedule.

These are expected to be provided within this year, at best. MaxDefense will definitely post updates regarding the availability of these two important documents that will push the project forward. Good luck to both the Philippine Navy and Hyundai Heavy Industries for this very important project for the Filipino people.

Monday, October 10, 2016

Philippine Army's Horizon 1 "Reprioritized List" Explained

With the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Modernization Program nearing the end of its "Horizon 1" phase, which covers the years 2013-2017, there are still projects that are being pursued for implementation and awarding.

We focus now on the Philippine Army (PA), which still has 4 projects uncompleted based on the original Horizon 1 phase modernization list approved by Pres. Aquino in 2013. But one of the projects, the Shore Based Missile System (SBMS) with an Approved Budget of Contract (ABC) worth Php 6.5 billion, was replaced by former Commanding General of the Philippine Army, then Lt. Gen. Hernando Iriberri, with a set of projects that were mostly front-loaded items from the Philippine Army's Horizon 2 Phase planned acquisition list. Meanwhile, the SBMS, which was among the projects discussed to Pres. Duterte by the Israeli delegation last August, will be acquired under a different program.

This "Iriberri projects" prevailed until now, and is called as the "Second List of Projects under Horizon 1", or simply "Horizon 1 Reproiritized List".


The Philippine Army has a strong display at the recently concluded ADAS 2016, including uniforms and gear used by its troops. The PA is expected to further enhance their infantry equipment as indicated in the Horizon 1 Phase Second List of Projects discussed in this blog entry.


The "Iriberri Projects":

MaxDefense previously discussed the content of the replacements made by the former CGPA, which can be found in the blog link below:

"SNAFU in the DND and the Philippine Army for Scrapping its Shore Based Missile System Project for Helmets and Vests" - dated July 9, 2015


The Shore Based Missile System supposed to be awarded to Israel Military Industries was the victim of the changes made by the former CGPA & CSAFP. Instead, focus on requirements for internal security was given priority.
Photo taken from IMI.



Compared to the list provided on the previous blog entry, there were some minor changes to the updated list especially on the quantity of force protection equipment and budget allocation. Here is the updated list approved in principle by Pres. Aquino which replaced the SBMS:

Individual Weapons:
  • 832 units of Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR) budgeted at Php 254.819 million (up from Php 149.760 million);
  • 32 units Long Range Sniper Rifle budgeted at Php 17.280 million
Force Protection Equipment:
  • 37,744 units of Body Armor budgeted at Php 1.283 billion (down from 39,889 units @ Php 1.356 billion);
  • 79,307 units of Helmet budgeted at Php 1.189 billion (down from 81,449 units @ Php 1.221 billion);
Tactical Radios:
  • 150 units of 20W HF Manpack Radios budgeted at Php 223.536 million;
  • 3,185 units of 2-5W VHF Handheld Radios budgeted at Php 678.060 million;
Other Equipment:
  • 11,000 units of Night Fighting System budgeted at Php 2.750 billion; 
  • 2 Lots of Chemical, Biological, Radiation, and Nuclear (CBRN) Equipment budgeted at Php 103.402 million;


All for a total allocated budget of Php 6.5 billion.

These projects were originally requested by the Philippine Army for acquisition as part of the AFP Modernization Program Horizon 2 phase scheduled between 2018 to 2022. But the former CGPA chose to frontload these items as a replacement for the SBMS. But as of mid-2016, recent developments were considered by the Philippine Army to review the acquisition list and prioritise items that are more immediately needed.

Considerations were made on the changes in operational requirements. Among them are:
  • The thrust of the Duterte administration to focus on counter-terrorist capabilities and improve long range sniping capabilities which was mentioned several times by Pres. Duterte in his trips to Army bases;
  • The need for more 2 1/2 ton trucks, due to different reasons including wear & tear, losses from ambushes, and other unknown reasons, and increased requirements to rapidly move logistical supplies;
  • Need to replace outdated individual weapons, mostly still consisting of M1911 .45cal pistols provided by the US Army since before World War 2;
  • Need to upgrade several armoured vehicles to improve its combat capability in supporting and protecting troops in the field.
Also considered was the expected delivery of the Night Fighting System project, in which Aselsan A.S of Turkey will be delivering 4,464 + 2,808 units of their A100 night vision monocular system starting middle of 2017. The quantity increased due to the option made by the Philippine Army to use the balance between the ABC and Aselsan's tendered amount worth Php 404 million to purchase additional units, thus the increase to 7,272 units. A review of the Table of Equipment of the Night Fighting System allocated to combat units was also made, and it appears that the quantity is still not enough although the delivery of new sets by 2017 can improve the TOE, allowing the PA to allocate the funds to other needs.

US Counterterrorism Programs were also considered, as the US government has provided some funds for the Philippine Army, which will allow the PA to use it to acquire some of the items included in the original list that, as long as it is purely related to Counter-terrorism activities. 


As more night vision monocular night fighting systems were ordered by the Philippine Army than originally planned, they find that it would be sufficient enough for now, and there is no immediate need for more. But Horizon 2 phase still has a lot of NFS requirements so we will still be seeing more of these items in the coming years.
Photo from Aselsan's website.



The Recommendation:

With the above conditions, the Philippine Army planners recommended the suspension of further acquisition of additional Night Fighting Systems worth Php 2.750 billion and instead allocate the amount to acquire several items that are much more essential for the organization.

To replace the 11,000 units of Night Fighting System, the Philippine Army recommended the following items for acquisition instead:
  • Acquisition of additional Long Range Sniper Weapon Systems
  • Acquisition of Truck, 2 1/2 ton Troop Carriers and Wreckers
  • Acquisition of Forward Support Equipment
  • Acquisition of Pistols
  • Pursue the Firepower Upgrade for M113A2


Final Reprioritzed List:

After the recommendations, the Philippine Army will be requesting for the approval of a revised list for acquisition under the Horizon 1 Phase of the the Army's Capability Upgrade Program.

           Individual Weapons:
    • 832 units of 7.62mm Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR) budgeted at Php 254.819 million;
    • 60 units Long Range Sniper Rifle budgeted at Php 32.822 million (adjusted upward from 32 units @ Php 17.280 million
    • 19,478 Pistols budgeted at Php 389.560 million;


    Force Protection Equipment:

    • 37,744 units of Body Armor budgeted at Php 1.283 billion 
    • 79,307 units of Helmet budgeted at Php 1.189 billion 


    Tactical Radios:

    • 150 units of 20W HF Manpack Radios budgeted at Php 223.536 million;
    • 3,185 units of 2-5W VHF Handheld Radios budgeted at Php 678.060 million;


    Mobility Equipment:
    • 190 units Truck, 2 1/2 ton Troop Carrier, and 10 units Truck, 2 1/2 ton Wrecker, all budgeted at Php 1.200 billion;
    • 2 lots Firepower Upgrade of M113A2 budgeted at Php 1.051 billion;

    Other Equipment:

    • 12 units Forward Support Equipment (Material Handling Equipment) budgeted at Php 93.248 million;
    • 2 Lots of Chemical, Biological, Radiation, and Nuclear (CBRN) Equipment budgeted at Php 103.402 million;



MaxDefense's Opinion:

No doubt that the Philippine Army will award several of the projects to existing suppliers, whose footprint is already high that continued patronage will be more practical than going for another supplier.

Among those is US-based Harris Corporation which has an existing project to supply their Harris Falcon III series radios as part of the original Horizon 1 phase acquisition program. Additional handheld and manpack radios will definitely be awarded to them.


Harris Corporation is expected to be awarded with another contract to supply more than 3,000 hand-held and manpack combat net radios for the Philippine Army as part of the Horizon 1 Second List of Projects.
Photo taken from Shephard Media Group.




Another is KIA Motors of South Korea, which already supplied thousands of tactical trucks to the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Being the foremost 2 1/2 ton truck of the AFP, additional orders of the the KM-250 is definitely a practical choice.


KIA Motors of South Korea is expected to be awarded with anther contract from the Philippine Army to supply 200 2 1/2-ton KM-250 trucks, in which 190 are troop carriers while 10 are wreckers.
Photo taken during ADAS 2016 by a MaxDefense community member who wishes to remain anonymous.



Aside from the expected awarding of projects to Harris Corporation and KIA Motors, there were previous indications that the other projects could have already been awarded recently. During Pres. Duterte's recent statements during his Army Camp trips these past few weeks.

During his visit of the Scout Rangers, he promised to provide 800+ units of 7.62mm rifles manufactured by Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal (FN Herstal) which he identified as "FN FAL" although MaxDefense believes that the president just made a naming mistake. If it was indeed from FN Herstal, MaxDefense expects the rifle to be the 7.62mm x 51mm FN SCAR-H, which has been used by other countries as a platform for a Designated Marksman Rifle. The numbers mentioned of around 800+ is close to the numbers indicated in the Final Reprioritized List for 832 units of 7.62mm DMR. Is it for this requirement? MaxDefense is unsure but it is possible.


While Pres. Duterte mentioned FN FAL, MaxDefense believes that he was probably referring to the FN SCAR-H designated marksman rifles when he mentioned of incoming deliveries for the Philippine Army. 


Aside from the rifles, Pres. Duterte promised to provide all soldiers of the AFP a Glock 30 .45cal automatic pistol. While it also remains to be seen if the president means issuing each solider a Glock 30 pistol, or is it given for free as a gift from the government, this commitment could negate the need for 19,478 pistols as indicated on the Final Reprioritized List.


The Glock 30 as displayed during ADAS 2016.
Photo taken by Jessie, our official photographer during ADAS 2016.



The president was also very vocal on the acquisition of long range sniper rifles from Barrett Firearms. The model was not named though, although Barrett is known for such weapons, and some of them are already in use with the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

It is also possible that the long range sniper rifle is a product of Remington. There was also one instance that Pres. Duterte mentioned handing over Remington sniper rifles to the Philippine Army in one of his camp visit. This statement from the president is also timely with the appearance of photos of Philippine Army personnel firing or testing a Remington XM2010 as shown below. Its highly possible that both Remington and Barrett are being considered for this requirement, although they are not of the same category.



Timely appearance of Remington XM2010 in the hands of Philippine Army troopers. It is possible that it is among those considered for the Long Range Sniper Rifle project.
Photos owned and from Philippine Armed Forces images and videos FB page.



For all the other items, there were already indications shown on the recently concluded ADAS 2016 exhibition on the possible contenders for projects.

For the Force Protection Equipment, it is expected that American company Revision Military, Source Vagabond from Israel, India's MKU, and South Korea's SanCheong may submit their proposals to the Philippine Army. All of these companies displayed their wares in ADAS 2016, although they have attained low-key attention during the show.


Revision Military and Source Vagabond combined their products as worn by this model from ADAS 2016. Revision is offering their Batlskin helmets, while Source offers what they call the P-Virtus system which is a Philippine-spec variant of the Virtus system used by the British Army.
Photo from Source Vagabond @ ADAS 2016.


Firepower upgrade for the M113A2 is another project that we cannot say yet who can get. It is highly possible that since Elbit Systems Land & C4I already did a similar project lately, they would probably submit an offer. Another ADAS 2016 participant, Turkey's FNSS, could possibly offer a proposal since they do such programs for the M113 series, including the delivery of 6 ACV-300 (now known as ACV-15) to the Philippine Army several years ago.


Elbit Systems Land & C4I has already been successful in delivering firepower upgrades for the M113A2 armoured personnel carriers of the Philippine Army. It is expected that they will provide a proposal to do the same for many more of the PA's M113A2 as part of the Second List of Projects under Horizon 1 Phase.
Photo taken by Jessie, our official photographer @ ADAS 2016.


For the Chemical, Biological, Radiation, and Nuclear (CBRN) Equipment, current providers of such equipment to the AFP, like Avon Protection, and active participants in the AFP Modernization like Korea's SanCheong are expected to provide offers.


SanCheong displayed their products including CBRN equipment during ADAS 2016.
Photo from Jessie, our official photographer @ ADAS 2016.



Since these projects are already being processed as we speak, MaxDefense would rather just let this new plans proceed. MaxDefense expects the contracts for the Force Protection Equipments (helmets and body armour vests) to be awarded first and soon, and may not undergo public bidding anymore. With the troops still fighting in Sulu chasing the Abuy Sayyaf Group, this acquisition should be done urgently. 

Also, in another visit to an Army camp made by Pres. Duterte lately, he has already asked his aides if the helmets and vests are already processed or acquired, which shows that this are being pushed rapidly by no else than the commander in chief of the AFP.


How About the SBMS?

While SBMS is delayed, it is not yet out of the acquisition plans. As discussed previously in other MaxDefense blogs and Facebook page posts, the SBMS was among those approved in principle by Pres. Duterte, although it will be acquired using a separate funding. It won't be waiting until the implementation of Horizon 2 phase as mentioned in previous statements by military and defense officials during the final months of Pres. Aquino's term.

IMI would still be the prime contractor, supported by Israel's Ministry of Defense. More on this project will be discussed separately in other blogs and FB posts.


IMI's offer for SBMS will still push through but under a different budget. It will still be pushed under Horizon 1 Phase of the Philippine Army's modernization program.



MaxDefense will provide more updates in the update section of this blog entry later on as all these push through. It is expected that there will be headway for some of the projects as early as this year.